12.1 FIRST SERVICE IN A SET
12.1.1 The first service of the first set, as well as that of the deciding 5th set isexecuted by the team determined by the toss.
12.1.2 The other sets will be started with the service of the team that did notserve first in the previous set.
12.2 SERVICE ORDER
12.2.1 The players must follow the service order recorded on the line-up sheet.
12.2.2 After the first service in a set, the player to serve is determined asfollows:
184.108.40.206 when the serving team wins the rally, the player (or his/her substitute)who served before, serves again;
220.127.116.11 when the receiving team wins the rally, it gains the right to serve androtates before actually serving. The player who moves from the frontright position to the back-right position will serve.
12.3 AUTHORIZATION OF THE SERVICE
The 1st referee authorizes the service, after having checked that the twoteams are ready to play and that the server is in possession of the ball.
12.4 EXECUTION OF THE SERVICE
12.4.1 The ball shall be hit with one hand or any part of the arm after beingtossed or released from the hand(s).
12.4.2 Only one toss or release of the ball is allowed. Dribbling or moving theball in the hands is permitted.12.4.3 At the moment of the service hit or take-off for a jump service, the server must not touch the court (the end line included) or the floor outside the service zone.
After the hit, he/she may step or land outside the service zone, or insidethe court.
12.4.4 The server must hit the ball within 8 seconds after the 1st referee whistlesfor service.
12.4.5 A service executed before the referee’s whistle is cancelled and repeated.
12.5.1 The players of the serving team must not prevent their opponent, through individual or collective screening, from seeing the server and the flight path of the ball.
12.5.2 A player or a group of players of the serving team make(s) a screen bywaving arms, jumping or moving sideways during the execution of the service, or by standing grouped to hide the server and the flight path of the ball.
12.6 FAULTS MADE DURING THE SERVICE
12.6.1 Serving faults.
The following faults lead to a change of service even if the opponent is out of position. The server:
18.104.22.168 violates the service order
22.214.171.124 does not execute the service properly.
12.6.2 Faults after the service hit.
After the ball has been correctly hit, the service becomes a fault (unless a player is out of position) if the ball:
126.96.36.199 touches a player of the serving team or fails to cross the vertical plane ofthe net completely through the crossing space;
188.8.131.52 goes “out”;
184.108.40.206 passes over a screen.
12.7 SERVING FAULTS AND POSITIONAL FAULTS
12.7.1 If the server makes a fault at the moment of the service hit (improper execution, wrong rotational order, etc.) and the opponent is out of position, it is the serving fault which is sanctioned.
12.7.2 Instead, if the execution of the service has been correct, but the servicesubsequently becomes faulty (goes out, goes over a screen, etc.), the positional fault has taken place first and is sanctioned.
PREVIOUS, PART 21: Playing actions – player at the net
NEXT, PART 23: Playing actions – attack hit
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